Do religious tithes (e.g. khums, repaying al-maẓālim and zakāt) fall under the jurisdiction of the government? Can a person liable to religious tithes give the sayyids’ share of khums, repaying al-maẓālim and zakāt to a deserving person?
In a lease, the landlord stipulated that the tenant should pay the equivalent of the rent plus a surcharge for every day he stays in the property after the expiry date of the lease. Does the tenant become indebted to the landlord with the amount he undertook to pay in the agreement?