Someone with a strong excuse doubted — 50% probability — that fasting was not obligatory for him, so he did not fast. Later it became clear to him that fasting was obligatory for him at that time. What is the ruling in respect of performing the qaḍā’ and paying kaffārah?
While going on a trip someone who is fasting breaks his fast before crossing the tarakhkhuṣ limit with the notion that he is a traveler, without knowing that he may break his fast before noon only when he has gone beyond the tarakhkhuṣ limit. What is the rule concerning his fast?
Considering cities expansion and impossibility of determining the exact time of fajr adhan, please let us know your respected opinion regarding the time of abstention for fast and saying morning prayer.
A person, at the outset of the age of shar‘ī puberty, is not able to fast due to physical weakness and inability. Is it enough for him to perform the qaḍā’ of the fast, or he is required to offer the kaffārah as well?