Conditions of Obligatory Fast
1. Those who are eligible to fast (Fast is obligatory provided that):
- They are mature;
- They are wise;
- They are able;
- They are not in coma;
- They do not go on a trip;
- She is not in menstrual cycle/nifās;
- It is not harmful/unbearably hard to fast.
Not Being Able to Fast at the Beginning of Puberty
Q2: What is the ruling for those who have recently reached puberty and find it somewhat difficult to fast? If they do not fast, is it obligatory for them to perform the qaḍā’ of the fast or perform both qaḍā’& kaffrah ?
A: It is obligatory for a person who has recently reached puberty to fast. It is not permissible to forsake fasting due to some excuse or weakness and s/he must carry out its qaḍā’ and pay the kaffārah. But if one knows fasting is harmful for him or fears out of rational root that fasting would be harmful, then s/he can break her/his fast. Also if fasting involves unbearable hardship, it is permissible for him to break the fast when he faced hardship. It is necessary to perform qaḍā’ in both situations and kaffārah is not obligatory.
To Break Fast during the Day due to Difficulty
Q3: Due to one's profession, he cannot fast because of hunger/thirst nor able to leave his job, can he break his fast at the beginning of the day or he has another duty? What about the juvenile who face unbearable hardship if they fast?
A: In the given cases, they can break their fast when they face unbearable hardship. However, they should perform qaḍā’ for the missed fast.
To Fast While the 1st of the Month Is not Ascertained
Q4: If it is difficult to ascertain the beginning of the month of Ramadan, or Eid ul-Fitr, because of inability to observe the crescent at the beginning of the month due to clouds or for some other reason, and if the count of the month of Sha‘bān or the month of Ramadan did not add up to 30 days, is it permissible for us in Japan to go by the horizon in Iran or should we rely on the regular calendar? What is the duty?
A: If the crescent has not been ascertained even by being sighted in an adjacent cities of the same horizon, or the evidence of two just witnesses, or on the basis of a decree by a mujtahīd, it is obligatory to observe caution until the beginning of the month is ascertained.
sameness of horizon
Q5: What is the sameness of horizon and which places are of the same horizon? If moon is sighted in the eastern countries, is the new moon established for the countries of the west?
A: the sameness of horizon means two cities/places are the same regarding how possible it is to sight of the new moon in them. Also sighting the moon in an eastern country is usually inseparable from possibility of sighting it in the country of the west, sometimes it is not like that due to much difference in their latitude; the criterion is corollary of possibility of moon sighting between the two countries.